1.3 Types of Policies
There are two types of policies that are prevalent in open access repositories –voluntary deposit and mandatory deposit.
1.3.1 Voluntary Deposit
This applies to the determination to deposit a research article voluntarily by the author/researcher. Voluntary deposition depends on authors or content creators, who are responsible for scholarly objects. Contributors should be motivated to promote the cause of OA. As Peter Suber argued, “successful policies are implemented through expectations, education, incentives and assistance, not coercion.” But there exists no unconditional (must have to make your work open access whether a work is funded or not) Open Access policy or voluntary policy at present except two good policies --Wellcome Trust and NIH (National Institute of Health) (Suber, 2012).
1.3.2 Mandatory Deposit
This applies to the determination to deposit of research articles by the employing institution. Main stake-holder of mandatory deposit is employing institution. There are three categories that are identified according to its nature of deposition. These are:
Immediate policy directs authors of the papers,
- to submit their research work (full-text) to repository, which have been accepted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal, immediately after acceptance for publication, if it is any way funded by tax-payers;
- to make its metadata (data about data, like title, author etc.) visible in repository from the time of deposition so that it can prove its existence; but giving respect to authors and publisher interest hold full-text up to embargo period; and
- to make full-text visible after 6- 12 months (recommended) after publication of research paper.
Simply, by this option, policy makers hold rights to make a research output open access. In this case right is either acquired by policy maker itself by their own policy or by giving grant of waiver to the author/content creator. Second category is identified as “Rights-retention policy with waiver option”. In this option, policy makers acquire sufficient rights to make a work open access by giving preference/grants to authors. Harvard University implemented this kind of open access policy.
By its nomenclature we can assume that this policy allows making research work open access through the loophole. It means, when author's publisher doesn't permit a work to make open access, this policy finds the loophole (alternative ways) from which deposition as open access is possible. (Suber, 2012). According to Open DOAR3, there may be different types of policies as mentioned below relating to individual aspects within overall open access.
- Metadata Policy – for information describing items in the repository. Access to metadata; Re-use of metadata.
- Data Policy– for full-text and other full data items. Access to full items; Re-use of full items.
- Content Policy– for types of document and data set held. Repository type; Type of material held; Principal languages.
- Submission Policy– concerning depositors, quality and copyright.
- Preservation Policy Retention period; Functional preservation; File preservation; Withdrawal policy; Withdrawn items; Version control; Closure policy.